@article{10.22261/QYJ7IT, title = {Why have China and Russia become Uzbekistan’s biggest energy partners? Exploring the role of exogenous and endogenous factors}, shorttitle = {China’s and Russia’s energy cooperation with Uzbekistan}, author = {Madiyev, Oybek}, editor = {}, publisher = {Veruscript}, shortjournal = {Cambridge J. Eurasian Stud.}, journal = {Cambridge Journal of Eurasian Studies}, year = 2017, month = mar, abstract = {In the 1990s, there was an expectation that Uzbekistan, along with other countries in Central Asia, would gradually move towards the West by distancing itself from the sphere of Russian influence. However, in spite of the West’s significant investment in the region’s economies and attempts to enter the local markets through both bilateral and multilateral channels, this shift never materialised. In fact, since the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Uzbekistan’s trade cooperation with Russia has remained robust, and only in 2014 did China overtook Russia as Uzbekistan’s biggest trading partner. This article aims to understand why Russia and China have become Uzbekistan’s biggest economic partners, especially in the energy sector. To understand this, I believe that it is important to analyse the nature of both domestic and international factors and their interaction. First of all, there are international factors: globalisation, the rise of China and an increase in global demand for natural resources; the role of the China-initiated the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and the Silk Road Economic Belt; and Russia’s attempt to reclaim its “great power” status since 2000 and Putin’s attempt to build and expand the Eurasian Economic Union. Second, there are domestic factors: understanding Russia’s and China’s foreign trade policy linked not only with economic growth but also with the structure of foreign economic policy decision-making, or “power vertical,” among other domestic elements. This article will draw on Critical International Political Economy (CIPE) to argue that this tradition is well equipped and offers an important framework to understand foreign economic policy of powers such as Russia and China. The CIPE does not simply combine the domestic and international factors but also insists on their indivisibility and engages with cultural, ideological and social elements in their historical contingency.}, volume = 1, pages = {QYJ7IT}, url = {https://www.veruscript.com/a/QYJ7IT/}, doi = {10.22261/QYJ7IT} }